Forming of cavities and correct installation of ties


The purpose of training delivered against this standard is to provide candidates with the practical skill and knowledge to be able to safely and effectively construct a cavity, paying particular attention to the correct fixings of wall ties.

CITB has developed this standard in discussion with industry


Minimum 1 day of 6 learning hours


The purpose of training delivered against this standard is to provide candidates with the practical skill and knowledge to be able to safely and effectively construct a cavity, paying particular attention to the correct fixings of wall ties.

The scope includes:

  • An introduction to why a cavity wall is used in constructing buildings
  • Advantages of cavity walls 
  • Introduction to why wall ties are used when constructing cavity walls
  • Weep holes and air bricks and where to place them
  • Fixing insulation boards in the cavity 
  • The hazards and defects associated with not correctly using wall ties in cavity constructionTypes and shapes of wall ties used in cavity construction and the different uses
  • Importance of keeping the cavity clean
  • Spacing and embedment of wall ties in cavity construction 
  • How to construct a cavity wall 
  • Tools and equipment used to construct a cavity wall
  • Standards and regulations.

Occupational relevance

Training delivered against this standard would be relevant to the following occupational groups:

  • operative and craft
  • supervision.

Candidate pre-requisites

There are no candidate pre-requisites as part of this standard. However, a basic knowledge of bricklaying terminology, tools and techniques would be beneficial.


As a minimum, course instructors must be able to demonstrate that, in relation to this standard, they have:

  • A train the trainer or instructional techniques course certificate
  • Successfully completed training to this standard 
  • At least 2 years relevant industrial experience 
    • experience in masonry construction
    • installation of wall ties
  • A verifiable CV.


Delivery may be in an on or off the job environment.

All materials and equipment must be of a suitable quality and quantity for candidates to achieve learning outcomes, and must comply with relevant legislation.

The class size and candidate/instructor ratio must allow training to be delivered in a safe manner and enable candidates to achieve the learning outcomes.

The following delivery methods may be used in the delivery of this standard:

  • classroom
  • e-learning
  • a blend of classroom and e-learning
  • other.

This standard is considered to contain 51 per cent or more practical training.


For the successful completion of training, candidates must complete an end of course practical assessment or knowledge test that measures the learning outcomes and has a pass or fail criteria.

Quality assurance

Quality assurance against this standard will require initial approval of the training organisation and their content mapped to the standard. 

CITB will also conduct an approval intervention, either desk-based or centre visit, to ensure the training organisation can meet the requirements of the Training Standard. 

Approved training organisations (ATOs) will be required to present information on records of training and assessment upon request to CITB for desk-based analysis. They will also be visited annually by the CITB quality assurance team.


Health & safety executive (HSE), other relevant codes of practice or industry card scheme criteria recommend that the candidate completes a refresher of his/her training (that is, to ensure their knowledge and/or skills are up to date) every 5 years.

Approval date

November 2018

Review cycle

Either on request or in 3 years from approval date.

Learning outcomes

The candidate will be able to:

  • Discuss what a cavity wall is and why they are used in constructing a building  
  • Discuss the advantages of using a cavity wall     
  • Discuss why wall ties are so important to use in cavity construction and the hazards and defects associated with non-compliance     
  • Identify the correct spacings and embedment for wall ties     
  • List the different wall ties used for various structural substrates     
  • Describe why weep holes and air vents are used and where to place them     
  • Discuss how to keep the cavity clean and why this is important     
  • List the tools and equipment used for cavity construction     
  • Discuss what insulation boards are used in cavity construction and how to install them using the correct wall tie     
  • Read and understand masonry setting out drawings and specification of wall ties  
  • Construct a cavity wall following all health and safety procedures.

Additional information about this standard

This standard was written by the Association of Brickwork Contractors who deliver training against this standard through the ABC Assessment Centre. 

Any guidance or support with training to this standard can be sought from the Association of Brickwork Contractors.

Related standards

PD 6697-2010 - Recommendations for the design of masonry structures to BS EN 1996-1-1 & 1996-2

Eurocode 6 - Part 1-1: General rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry structures

Eurocode 6 – Part 2 : Design considerations, selection of materials and execution of masonry

You can find out more from these organisations:

NHBC Standards

The Construction Fixings Association